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Full text of "Authority and the individual"

AUTHORITY   AND   THE   INDIVIDUAL
Satan, and the old mechanism of hatred of those out-
side the tribe has returned, giving added vigour to
the creed, but in a direction which diverted it from
its original purpose. Religion, morality, economic
self-interest, the mere pursuit of biological survival,
all supply to our intelligence unanswerable arguments
in favour of world-wide co-operation, but the old
instincts thafhave come down to us from our tribal
ancestors rise up in indignation, feeling that life
would lose its savour if there were no one to hate,
that Anyone who could love such a scoundrel as so-
and-so would be a worm, that struggle is the law of
life, and that in a world where we all loved one
another there would be nothing to live for. If the
unification of mankind is ever to be realized, it will
be necessary to find ways of circumventing our
largely unconscious primitive ferocity, partly by
establishing a reign of law, and partly by finding
innocent outlets for our competitive instincts.
This is not an easy problem, and it is one which
cannot be solved by morality alone. Psycho-analysis,
though no doubt it has its exaggerations, and even
perhaps absurdities, has taught us a great deal that is
true and valuable. It is an old saying that even if you
expel nature with a pitchfork it will still come back,
but psycho-analysis has supplied the commentary to
this text. We now know that a life which goes exces-
sively against natural impulse is one which is likely to
involve effects? of strain that may be quite as bad as
indulgence in forbidden impulses would have been,
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